Work, publications

 LISANNE  (legal names ELIZABETH ANN)  BAINBRIDGE


Positions held : 


October 1980 - March 1992 (early retirement) :

Reader in Psychology, Department of Psychology, University College London.

3rd year lectures Occupational Psychology.

M Sc Ergonomics course Systems Design.

A department which at that time staunchly defended experimental psychology against any impurity of applied work.  They refused to include the Ironies paper in the department's list of publications. They had to have an occupational psychologist on staff to meet the requirements of the British Psychological Society, and I am happy to say my course influenced career decisions.   


February 1968 - September 1980 :

Lecturer in Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Reading.

1st year lecture course         Understanding data [statistics].

2nd year lecture courses Skill.

        Industrial Psychology.

        Memory.

        Mathematical Psychology.

3rd year seminar courses Skill (and computer simulation).

        Cognitive Psychology (with Dr. Alan Allport).

Department Timetabler.

With 'tenure' and kind colleagues, some stability came into my life.  The second very lucky phase of my working life.

During the first long vacations I was able to finish making sense of the steel works data and then write my PhD thesis, examined in 1972.  The techniques and concepts developed for analysing and accounting for those data have formed the basis of much of my writing since then.

My thesis was finished at about the time Winograd published 'Understanding Natural Language'.  That influenced my later thinking, as he described mechanisms for understanding language as building up a wider context of meaning, rather than analysing semantics-free excerpts, or sentences before paragraphs.


February 1966 - January 1968 :

Research Assistant with Academic Status, Department of Psychology, University of Bristol.

British Iron and Steel Research Association grant to study the measurement of mental load.

Investigator Dr. R.J. Beishon.    

See papers and reports in 1966, 1967, 1968.

John Beishon led the research grant under which the steel works operator data were collected, and the first analysis done.

I owe him, as he provided a job and somewhere to live when I returned from the States.  Also the steel works study which most of my research career has followed on from, though we were both working within ideas and attitudes provided by Ted Crossman.


August 1964 - January 1966 :

Research Assistant, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of California, Berkeley.

Investigator Prof. E.R.F.W. Crossman

a.August 1964 - August 1965 :

Research project on effects of automation on required job skills.

Job analyses in various automated industries, especially steel and baking.

b. September 1965 - January 1966 :     

Research project on investigation of driving skills.     

See paper and report in 1967.

I remember writing an attempted operator simulation in Fortran ! the limitations of which rather put me off computer-based operator modelling.  Also testing whether it was possible to simulate a visual dynamic driving environment which changed according the vehicle position, for use in experiments.  It was possible to specify the geometry of what was needed, but of course actually doing it in Fortran wasn’t possible in real time, using a room sized IBM 360 made of valves which had to be fed with punch cards (and when there was a bug in your program, you had to wait 24hrs for another try).


August 1962 - July 1964 :

Research Assistant, Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford.

Research Project Thought and Decision in Control Skills.

Investigator Dr. E.R.F.W. Crossman, other assistants John Beishon, John Cooke.    

See paper and reports in 1962, 1963, 1964.

My whole career developed from what I learned during this time.  The first very lucky phase of my working life.

I remember working on two main data collecting projects.  

One was observation of the operator of the Oxford University Press paper mill at Wolvercote.

We also studied the operators of the slab re-heat furnace at Richard, Thomas & Baldwin’s, Llanwern, south Wales.  The 1963 report was not publicly available.  That plant makes a comment on the progress of technology.  RTB was notable at the time (opened 1962) as the first fully automated hot strip mill.  Apart from the slab re-heat furnace, control of which depended on the operators' perceptual skills to judge the temperature of the steel.  The plant was demolished about 40 years later, in 2004, and the area returned to farming land.


October 1960 - July 1962 :

Psychologist, RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hants.

See paper and reports in 1960, 1961, 1962.

I was fortunate to share an office with David Hopkin, and mainly worked as his assistant on studies of radar tracking.  I also wrote a compilation of known ergonomic recommendations.


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Visits to other Laboratories, funded by hosts :


University of Paris 8 - invited by Prof. Jean-Michel Hoc.

Equipe Psychologie Cognitive Ergonomique

1992 4 months, supported by Small Personal Research Grant

from the British Academy in association with the CNRS


University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada - invited by Prof. Neville Moray.

Department of Industrial Engineering

1985 6 months on Anglo-Canadian Scientific Exchange Scheme.

1985 6 months : Visiting Professor

courses taught :

Fourth Year Human Information Processing in Man-Machine Systems.

This developed into the chapter on "Processes underlying human performance" published in a book on Aviation Human Factors.

        Postgraduate Human Factors in System Design.


State University of New York at Buffalo, USA - invited by Prof. Colin Drury.

Department of Industrial Engineering

1984 6 months : Visiting Professor

Postgraduate course taught : Human Factors in Process Control.


Technical University of Twente, The Netherlands

Electrical Engineering Department, invited by Prof. Joop Kalsbeek :

1979 3 months

Ergonomics Workgroup, Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences, invited by Dr. Ted White :

1989 8 months, Visiting Research Fellow


Laboratoire de Psychologie du Travail, Paris, France -  invited by Prof Jacques Leplat.

1976 2 weeks

1981 3 weeks

(supported by Naturalia et Biologia)

1987 2 months (Assistant Director of Laboratory)

(supported by Ministre de l'Education Nationale).


Electronics Department, Danish Research Establishment, Risø , Denmark - invited by Prof. Jens Rasmussen  (see notes on Home page).

1975 2 weeks

1976 4 weeks.


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Examiner 


(1993) Examiner.  Habilitation à diriger les recherches. Dr. C. Mariné. Department of Psychology, University of Toulouse at Mirail. June 3.


(1992)  PhD Examiner, René Amalberti, Equipe Psychologie Cognitive Ergonomique, University of Paris 8, December 17.


(1992)  Examiner.  Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches.  Dr. F. Daniellou, University of Toulouse at Mirail, October 2.


(1992)  PhD Examiner, Françoise Decortis, Department of Work Psychology, University of Liège, Belgium, February 21.


(1990)  PhD Examiner.  Albert Brinkman. Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands, December 14.


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Degree Qualifications, etc. :


1976 Bartlett Medal, Ergonomics Research Society

(This is now called the Lifetime Achievement award for Academic Research.)

Awarded for a 'significant contribution to the theoretical and practical understanding of process control behaviour'.


1972 PhD University of Bristol, Department of Psychology

Thesis : 'An Analysis of a Verbal Protocol from a Process Control Task'.

        (examiners : Prof. W. T. Singleton, Dr. J. Spencer)


1966 MS University of California at Berkeley

Industrial Engineering - Human Factors in Technology

Grade Point Average 3.9 (max. 4.0) (The one not-A course was on control theory.  As I didn't know any calculus, I thought that was my biggest achievement.)


1967 MA Cambridge University (Newnham College)

1959 Natural Sciences Tripos Part I

Physiology, Invertebrate Zoology, Biochemistry,

Pathology, Organic Chemistry.

1960 Natural Sciences Tripos Part II

Psychology, Class 2 ii


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Professional Society Membership :


British Psychological Society Graduate Member


Ergonomics Research Society Member


Human Factors Society Member


IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society Affiliate Member





Publications, invited presentations


Editing :


(1993)  Bainbridge, L and Weill-Fassina, A. (eds.), Le Travail Humain, Special Issues on the Cognitive Analysis of Work, in Honour of Jacques Leplat, 56 (2-3), 109-275.  


(1993)  Bainbridge, L., Lenior, T.M.J. and van der Schaaf, T.W. (eds.),  Ergonomics, Special Issue on Cognitive Processes in Complex Tasks, 36 (11), 1271-1455.  


(1989)  Bainbridge, L. and Reinartz, S.J. (eds.),  Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Processes in Complex Tasks, TV Rhineland, Wilgersdorf, Germany, pp.134.


(1989)  Bainbridge, L. and Ruiz Quintanilla, S.A. (eds.),  Developing Skills with Information Technology,  Wiley, pp.348.


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Papers Published :


Modelling Cognitive Processes in Process Operation :


(1997) The change in concepts needed to account for human behaviour in complex dynamic tasks. Special  Issue of IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part A: Systems and Humans, 27, 351-359.  (invited paper)


(1992)   Mental models in cognitive skill : the case of industrial process operation. In Rogers, Y., Rutherford, A. and Bibby, P. (eds.) Models in the Mind. Academic Press, London, pp.119-143. (invited paper).


(1989)   Cognitive science approaches to process operation : present gaps and future requirements. Proceedings of the Second European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control.  October 245-27, Siena, Italy, pp.1-9. (invited paper).


(1988)   Types of Representation, In Goodstein, L.P., Anderson, H.B. and Olsen, S.E. (eds.) Tasks, Errors and Mental Models. Taylor & Francis Ltd., London, pp.70-91. (invited paper).


(1986)   What should a 'good' model of the NPP operator contain ? Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Advances in Human Factors in Nuclear Power Systems, April 21-24, American Nuclear Society, Knoxville, Tennessee, pp.3-11. (invited paper).


(1984)   Diagnostic skill in process operation, Proceedings of the 1984 International Conference on Occupational Ergonomics, Volume 2 : Reviews. May 7-9, Toronto, Canada, pp.1-10. (invited paper).


(1981)   Mathematical equations or processing routines ? In Rasmussen, J. and Rouse, W.B. (eds.) Human Detection and Diagnosis of System Failures.  NATO Conference Series III : Human Factors, Vol.15.  Plenum Press, New York, pp.259-286.


(1980)   Einige Typen zielgerichteten Vorgehens bei der Processregulation, In Hacker, W. and Raum, H. (eds.), Optimierung von Kognitiven Arbeitsanforderungen. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, (East) Berlin, pp.32-35. (invited paper).

(translation of 1978 report)


(1978)   The process controller, In Singleton, W.T. (Ed.) The Study of Real Skills, Vol. I. The Analysis of Practical Skills.  MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster, pp.236-263. (invited paper).

translation published as :

(1980-1), Le contrôle des processus, Bulletin de Psychologie, XXXIV, 813-832. 


(1974)   Analysis of verbal protocols from a process control task, In Edwards, E. and Lees, F.P. (eds.) The Human Operator in Process Control, Taylor & Francis Ltd, London, pp.146-158. (invited paper).


(1968)   (with Beishon, R.J. Hemming, J.and Splaine, M.),  A study of real-time human decision making using a plant simulator, Operational Research Quarterly, Special Conference Issue, 19, 91-106.

reprinted in :

(1974), Edwards, E. and Lees, F.P. (eds.) The Human Operator in Process Control, Taylor & Francis Ltd, London, pp.91-104.


(1967)   A discrete predicting controller.  British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology20, 31-50.



General Papers on Cognitive Modelling


(1993)  Types of hierarchy imply types of model, Ergonomics, 36 (11), 1399-1412.


(1993)  (with T.M.J. Lenior and T.W. van der Schaaf)  Cognitive processes in complex tasks : introduction and discussion, Ergonomics, 36 (11), 1273-1279.


(1993)  The change in concepts needed to account for human behaviour in complex dynamic tasks.  Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Le Touquet, France, 17-20 October.  Volume 1, pp.126-131. (invited paper) 


(1991)  The 'cognitive' in cognitive ergonomics. Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Ergonomics, Le Travail Humain, 54, 337-343. (invited paper)


(1989)  Types of hierarchy, types of model. In Bainbridge and Reinartz, op cit, pp. 75-85.

revised version published as :

(1991)  Organising principles in hierarchies and models. In Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control. September 2-6, School of Psychology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, pp.81-90.


(1989)  Extrapolating from one task to another.  In Proceedings of the Conference on Simulation in the Development of the User Interface, May 18-19, Brighton, pp.22-39. (invited paper).

revised version published in :

(1990)  Life, M.A., Narborough-Hall, C.S. and Hamilton, W.I., Simulation and the User Interface.  Taylor & Francis, London, pp.11-30.


(1988)  Multiple representations or 'good' models.  In Patrick, J. and Duncan, K.D. (eds.), Training, Human Decision Making and Control.  Elsevier/ North Holland, pp.1-11.


(1982)  Laboratory experiments, stimulus (or obstacle) to the development of cognitive psychology.  Comments on J.Leplat : Le terrain, stimulant (où obstacle) au developpement de la psychologie cognitive.  Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 2 (2), 158-161. (invited paper).


(1973)  Review of Newell & Simon 'Human Problem Solving', Ergonomics, 16, 892-899.



Knowledge Elicitation


(1995)  (with Penelope Sanderson) Verbal Protocol Analysis, 2nd edition, Wilson and Corlett (eds.)   Evaluation of Human Work,  CRC Press. (invited paper)


(1990)  Verbal protocol analysis.  In Wilson, J.R. and Corlett, E.N. (eds.), Evaluation of Human Work, Taylor & Francis, London, pp.161-179. (invited paper).


(1986)  Asking questions and accessing knowledge,  Future Computing Systems, 1, 143-149. (invited paper).


(1985)  Inferring from verbal reports to cognitive processes.  In Brenner, M., Brown, J. and Canter, D. (eds.), The Research Interview, Uses and Approaches, Academic Press, London, pp.201-215. (invited paper).


(1979)  Verbal reports as evidence of the process operator's knowledge. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 11, 411-436.

reprinted in :

(1981)  Mamdani, E.H. and Gaines, B.R. (eds.) Fuzzy Reasoning and its Applications; Academic Press, London, pp.343-368.



Skill, Workload and Training


(1993) Planning the training of a complex skill, Le Travail Humain, 56 (2/3), 211-232.


(1990)  A note on training sequences and simulator facilities for industrial process operation. Proceedings of the Workshop on Training in Dynamic Environment Supervision, September 27-28, School of Psychology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, pp.1-9.

(invited paper).


(1989)  Development of skill, reduction of workload.  In Bainbridge and Ruiz Quintanilla (eds.), op cit, pp.87-116.


(1989)  Cognitive processes and training methods : a summary.  In Bainbridge and Ruiz Quintanilla (eds.), op cit, pp.177-192.


(1978)  Forgotten alternatives in skill and workload. Ergonomics, 21, 169-185.

simultaneously published as :

(1977)  Possibilités oubliées en matière d'habilété et de charge de travail. Le Travail Humain, 40, 203-224.


(1975)  The representation of working storage and its use in the organisation of behaviour. In Singleton, W.T. and Spurgeon, P. (eds.) Measurement of Human Resources, Taylor & Francis, London, pp.165-183. (invited paper).


(1974)  Problems in the assessment of mental load. Le Travail Humain, 37 (2), 279-302.


(1972)  (with Sanders)  The generality of Fitts' Law. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96, 130-133.



Interface and Job Design


(1995) Processes underlying human performance.  In Garland, D.J., Hopkin, V.D. and Wise, J.A. (eds.) Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ. 1998.


(1991)  Multiplexed VDT display systems, In Weir, G.R.S. and Alty, J.L. (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction and Complex Systems. Academic Press, London, pp.189-210. (invited paper).


(1990)  Will expert systems solve the operator's problems ?  In Roe, R.A., Antalovitz, M. and Dienes, E. (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Technological Change Process and its Impact on Work.  September 9-13, Siofok, Hungary, pp.197-218. (invited paper).

translation published as :

(1991)  Les systèmes experts resoudront-ils tous les problèmes des operateurs ?   In Neboit, M. and Fadier, E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Colloquium on Facteurs Humains de la Fiabilité et de la Securité des Systèmes Complexes. April, INRS, Nancy, France, pp.17-26. (invited paper).


(1988)  New display and control technologies as sources of difficulty for the human process operator, In Segerstahl, B. and Kromer, G (eds.) Issues and Trends in Risk Research,  International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, pp.237-247. (invited paper).


(1988)  Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks, In Anthony, R.D. (Ed.) Human Reliability in Nuclear Power.  IBC Technical Services Ltd., London pp.199-217. (invited paper).


(1987)  VDT/VDU interfaces for process control, In Wilson, J.R., Corlett, E.N. and Manenica, I. (eds.) New Methods in Applied Ergonomics, Taylor & Francis, London, pp.97-105. (invited paper).


(1983)  Ironies of automation. Automatica, 19, 775-779.

reprinted in :

(1987)  Rasmussen, J., Duncan, K. and Leplat, J. (eds.) New Technology and Human Error, Wiley, Chichester, pp.276-283.


(1975)  Measuring by judgement, Applied Ergonomics, 6, 9-16.


(1971)  The influence of display type on decision making. In Institute of Electrical Engineers Conference Publication No.80, Displays, pp.209-215.


(1966)  (with Sinclair, I., Sell, R. and Beishon, R.J.) Ergonomic study of an LD Waste-Heat Boiler control room, Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 204, 434-442.


(1964)  (with Beishon, R.J.) The place of check lists in ergonomic job analysis, Ergonomics, Proceedings of the Second International Ergonomics Association Congress, Dortmund, pp. 379-387.


(1962)  Human Factors in the Design of Consoles. Flying Personnel Research Committee Memorandum No. 179, pp.102.



Papers not completed after retirement, mostly something similar on Home page :


Difficulties and errors in complex dynamic tasks, accepted for revision by Ergonomics.


Cognitive context analysis, accepted for revision by International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing.


Will expert systems solve the operators' problems ?  accepted for revision by Behaviour and Information Technology.


Context and complexity in dynamic tasks.  I. A cognitive processing element.  II. Evidence for the cognitive mechanism.  III. Knowledge in mental workload and learning. submitted to Ergonomics.


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Research Reports not included above :


(1993)  Building up behavioural complexity from a cognitive processing element.  Department of Psychology, University College London, November.


(1992)  Is your simulation really necessary ?  Department of Psychology, University College London.  Prepared for proposed book : Cacciabue, C., Pavard, B. and Hoc, J-M. (eds.) Simulation in Dynamic Environments.


(1992)  A proposal for the structure of training in a complex task.  Department of Psychology, University College London.


(1992)  Errors and alleviation.  Department of Psychology, University College London. March.


(1992)  Unfamiliar situations.  Department of Psychology, University College London.


(1989)  Cognitive task analysis for process operations. Ergonomics Workgroup, University of Twente.


(1989)  The future of Human Factors/ Ergonomics.  A response to questions posed by Neville Moray on behalf of the Human Factors Committee of the US National Research Council.  Ergonomics Workgroup, University of Twente, The Netherlands, September.


(1989)  The relation between the categories in 'Types of Skill' and in Rasmussen's 'Skill-Rule-Knowledge' based schema.  Department of Psychology, University College London, April.


(1984)  Speed-Accuracy tradeoffs in choice reaction times : processing stages and capacity limitations.  Department of Psychology, University College London, July. pp.25.


(1983)  (with Umbers)  Proof 2 : Interface, Workplace Conditions, and Support Documentation.  Proofs of Evidence presented by the Ergonomics Society to the Sizewell 'B' Public Inquiry.  ES P2. January.


(1981)  Studies of mental load and interface design : preliminary research proposals.  Department of Psychology, University College London. May. pp.17.


(1980)  Mathematical equations or processing routines ?  NATO Symposium on Human Detection and Diagnosis of System Failures.  Risø , Denmark, August. Reprints Volume 1, pp. 247-270.  (longer version of 1981 paper).


(1979)  Process structure and display structure, Part I : general discussion.  Department of Electrical Engineering, T.H.Twente, The Netherlands.  Report No. TM 79-020. September.


(1979)  Degraded visual stimuli - implications for display testing.  Department of Electrical Engineering, T.H.Twente, The Netherlands.  Report No. 1227.2876, 25 Juli. pp. 8.


(1979)  The perils of modelling.  Paper presented to Workshop on 'Mathematical Modelling in Ergonomics', at Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, Oxford, April.


(1978)  Some types of goal-directed behaviour in process control.  Paper presented to Symposium on 'Optimisation of Cognitive Job Demands', University of Dresden GDR, December 5-7.


(1976)  Topics and techniques for study of operator behaviour.  Electronics Department, Research Establishment, Risø , Denmark.  Report No. N-50-76. September.


(1975)  Working memory in air-traffic control.  Department of Psychology, University of Reading.


(1972)  An analysis of a verbal protocol from a process control task.  PhD Thesis, University of Bristol, September. pp.261.


(1969)  The nature of the mental model in process control.  Department of Psychology, University of Reading.  (presented at the International Symposium on Man-Machine Systems, Cambridge, September).


(1968)  Maximum demand task, findings from study of a protocol.  Department of Psychology, University of Reading.  February.


(1967)  (with Beishon)  A survey of methods for analysing mental tasks.  Department of Psychology, University of Bristol. December.


(1967)  FRED : a second version.  Department of Psychology, University of Bristol. November.  (an attempt at human operator simulation)


(1967)  (with Beishon)  A comparison of experienced and inexperienced subjects on the Maximum Demand Task.  Submitted to BISRA.


(1967)  (with Beishon)  A study of memory and prediction during a mental task.  Submitted to BISRA.


(1967)  (with Beishon)  A note on pulse rate during performance of a process control task. Submitted to BISRA.


(1966)  (with Beishon)  The concept and measurement of mental load.  British Iron and Steel Research Association Report No. OR/HF/34/66. October.


(1963)  (with Beishon, Crossman, and Mayhew)  Interim report on the Slab Reheat Furnace Control System at RTB Spencer Works, Newport.  September.


(1963)  Flow diagrams in ergonomic job analysis.  Institute of Experimental Psychology, Oxford. June.


(1962)  (with Beishon)  Interim Report on a study of the LD Waste-Heat Boiler Control System at the Spencer Works of RTB Newport, Mon.  Institute of Experimental Psychology, Oxford. December.


(1962)  (with Hopkin)  Studies in radar tracking reliability VII.  A comparison between live tracking and paper studies.  Institute of Aviation Medicine Report No. 178.


(1962)  (with Hopkin)  Studies in radar tracking reliability VI.  The ability to distinguish between patterns representing 4 types of track behaviour.  Institute of Aviation Medicine Report No. 177.


(1961)  Two classified reports on the navigator's task in the TSR2  (one with Drazin).


(1961)  (with Hopkin)  Some errors in dial reading associated with varying scale position and direction.  Institute of Aviation Medicine Report No. 169.


(1960)  (with Cameron)  A comparison of three alternative arrangements of buttons on a ten button keyset.  Institute of Aviation Medicine.



Papers produced for the Health and Safety Executive, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, Operators in Nuclear Safety Working Group :


(1980)  (with Moray)  Some properties of the human operator relevant to process control.  ONSWG/P7. December. pp.18.


(1981)  Preliminary response to ONSWG/P8. March. (confidential).


(1981)  Operator Training.  ONSWG/P20. April. (confidential).


(1981)  (with the Working Group)  Ergonomics/ Human Factors in the Design and Safe Operation of Pressurised Water Reactors.  April. NII-ONSWG (82) P.1. NII/R/36/82. pp.51.



UK Human Factors in Reliability Group :


(1985)  Guide to Reducing Human Error in Process Operation.  Short Version. UKAEA Safety and Reliability Directorate, SRD R 347, pp. 24. February.



Minor Pieces


(1989)  Review of Wieskrantz (Ed.) Thought and Language. The Psychologist, December. p.510.


(1985)  Revised Instructions for operating Three-Mile Island NPP Simulation on Apple II. Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada, October.


(1983)  Review of Posner. Chronometric Explorations of Mind. Ergonomics, 26, 111-112.


(1982)  Categories of Error.  Prepared for Data Section of UK Human Factors in Reliability Group.  September. 3pp.


(1981)  Displaying Process Structure.  In Proceedings of First European Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control.  Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, pp. 54-61.


(1978)  Conditional statements as clues to a process operator's knowledge and thinking. Technische Universität, Dresden, GDR.  Symposium on Optimisation of Cognitive Job Demands, December 5-7.  Abstracts Publication, p.2.


(1977)  Mental operations in complex industrial tasks : implications for design.  Abstract.

Ergonomics, 20, 557-558.

[The ERS Annual Conference that year ran over April 1st.  As the Conference programme chair, I was given the job of giving the first talk on April 1.  I'm obviously not a comedian - it took me about 6 months to think of enough jokes to fill 20 min.  This was the fake abstract for that talk.  Ironically it is the only conference talk abstract I have ever had requests for the full paper from.]


(1977)  The man-machine interface.  Study Notes for IEE Vacation School on Industrial Digital Control Systems.  March.


(1976)  Workload in manual take-over from automated control systems.  21st. International Congress of Psychology, Paris, July.  Abstract Guide p.178.


(1975)  Flight control and safety, New Behaviour, 2 (7), 252-255.


(1973)  Review of Dutton and Starbuck. Computer Simulation of Human Behaviour.  Ergonomics, 16, 542-543,


(1970)  Review of Siegel and Wolf.  Man-Machine Simulation Models.  The Computer Bulletin, 14 (July), 251.


(1968)  Models for Human Control Behaviour.  A is B Newsletter, No.6, July, pp.14-16.


(1964)  (with Beishon)  Assessing mental load in process operators.  Abstract. Ergonomics, 7, 358.


(1963)  (with Beishon)  The use of control flow diagrams in ergonomic job analysis. Abstract. Ergonomics, 6, 443.


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Invited Participation in International Meetings, funded by hosts :


(1993)  Invited speaker.  The change in concepts needed to account for human behaviour in complex dynamic tasks.  IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 17-20 October, Le Touquet, France.


(1992)  Seminar.  Cognitive Difficulties and Errors.  University of Toulouse, December 11.


((1992)  Reviewer.  CADES Meeting on Operator Modelling, Ispra, Italy, April 9.


(1992)  Reviewer.  Mental Models and Everyday Activities, Second Interdisciplinary Workshop on Mental Models, Cambridge, March 23-25.


(1991)  Invited paper. The nature of cognitive skill in process operation.  CADES Meeting on Cognitive Simulation.  Bretigny, France, June 14.


(1991)  Invited paper.  Will expert systems solve the operators' problems ?  CADES Meeting on Operator Support, Bretigny, France, June 13.


(1991)  Invited paper.  The 'cognitive' in cognitive ergonomics.  Le Travail Humain Workshop on 'Cognitive Ergonomics : Multidisciplinary Stakes', Paris, May 23.


(1991)  Seminar.  The notions of 'goal' and 'skill' in complex behaviour.  Equipe Psychologie Cognitive Ergonomique, University of Paris 8, St. Denis, France, May 22.


(1991)  Opening speaker.  Will expert systems solve the operators' problems ?. Colloquium on 'Facteurs Humains de la Fiabilité et de la Sécurité des Systèmes Complexes.'  INRS, Vandoevre, Nancy, France, April 17-18.


(1990)  Invited speaker.  Will expert systems solve the operators' problems ?  European Network of Occupational Psychologists Workshop on Technological Change Process and its Impact on Work, Siofok, Hungary, September 9-13.


(1990)  Keynote speaker.  Mental models in cognitive skill.  BCS HCI Workshop on Mental Models, Nottingham, March 21-23.


(1989)  External seminars given during visit to University of Twente, The Netherlands :

27 September Man-Computer Interaction Group, Centre for Knowledge Technology,   Utrecht.

19 October Laboratory for Man-Machine Systems, University of Kassel, Germany.

7 November Psychology Workgroup, University of Gröningen.

14 November Industry and Work Workgroup, University of Eindhoven.

30 November Work Psychology Department, University of Brabant at Tilburg.


(1989)  Opening speaker.  Cognitive science approaches to process operation : present gaps and future requirements.  Second European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Siena, Italy, October 24-27.


(1989)  Invited Speaker.  Modelling complex behaviour.  Ciba Foundation/ Royal Society Discussion Meeting on Human Factors in High-Risk Situations : Modelling Control Processes within the Operator. June 30.


(1988)  Tutorial paper on Automation Options and Function Allocation.  CEC Discussion Meeting on Workload, Training and Performance in Advanced Technology Systems, Technological University of Berlin, June 10-12.


(1988)  Seminar.  Types of cognitive skill.  Working Group on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, University of Paris 8, June 1.


(1987)  Invited speaker.  Cognitive processes in knowledge-based tasks : implications for human-computer collaboration.  Seminar on the Horizon Plant.  Shell Recherche, Grand-Couronne, France, November 23-24.


(1987)  Chief Discussant.  First European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control. Marcoussis, France, October 19-20.


(1987)  Invited speaker.  VDT/VDU interfaces for process control.  International Conference on Applied Methods in Ergonomics, Zadar, Yugoslavia, April 14-16.


(1987)  Invited speaker.  New display and control technologies as sources of difficulty for the human process operator.  International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis/ International Atomic Energy Authority Workshop on Technological Risk in Modern Society, Laxenburg, Austria, March 17-20.


(1984)  Invited speaker.  Diagnostic skill in process operation.  International Conference on Occupational Ergonomics, Toronto, May 6-13.


(1978)  Opening speaker.  Some types of goal-directed behaviour in process control.  Symposium on Optimierung kognitiver Arbeitsanforderungen, Technical University of Dresden, GDR, December 5-12.




Professional Committee Membership, etc. :


Conference Programme Committees (since 1982)


(1995)  Fifth European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Helsinki, Finland.


(1993)  Fourth European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Copenhagen, August 25-27.


(1991)  Third European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Cardiff, September 2-6.


(1989)  Workshop on Cognitive Processes in Complex Tasks.  TV Rheinland Conference Centre, Wilgersdorf, Germany, December 4-6.


(1989)  Second European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Siena, Italy, October 25-27.


(1989)  Simulation in the Development of the User Interface.  Ergonomics Society, Brighton, May 18-19.


(1988)  Seventh European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control.  Electricité de France, Paris, October 18-20.


(1987)  What and how to train in new technology.  Workshop organised by the New Technology and Work Sub-Group of the European Network of Occupational Psychologists.  Werner-Reimers Foundation, Bad-Homberg, Germany, April 9-11.


(1984)  Ergonomics Problems in Process Operation.  Institute of Chemical Engineers.  University of Aston, Birmingham.  July 11-13.


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Ergonomics Society :


Member of Working Group on Nuclear Safety, with reference to the Sizewell 'B' Inquiry : 

                January 1982 - May 1982.


Chairman, Meetings Committee April 1979 - March 1982.


Honorary Meetings Secretary April 1969 - March 1973.

responsible for organising programme of annual conference


Other :


Health and Safety Commission 

Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations

Member October 1993 - September 1996

Sub-Committee on Research

Member January 1994 - 1996.


CNRS-PIRTEM Groupe de Travail - Cognitive Approaches to Dynamic Environment Supervision (CADES).  Member 1990 - 1992.


European Association of Cognitive Ergonomics : 

Member of Executive Committee 1989 - 1992.


CNRS-PIRTEM Groupe de Travail - Modèles d'Analyses des Situations de Travail Complexes : Member 1986 - 1988.


European Network of Occupational Psychologists : Workgroup on New Technology and Work : Member 1983 - 1991.


Operators in Nuclear Safety Working Group, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, Health and Safety Executive : Member 1980-1981.


Institution of Electrical Engineers, Control and Automation Division : Professional Group Committee C6 on Control Aspects of Biological and Man-Machine Systems : 

Co-opted Member : October 1971 - September 1977.



Journals, etc. :


Correspondant étranger : Le Travail Humain


Editorial Board : International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing


Refereeing for Ergonomics, Behaviour and Information Technology, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies.

ESPRIT Referee 1991


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©  2022, Lisanne Bainbridge


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